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organizing process pdf

These are the foundation of setting the relationship between the subordinates and the superior and the five core functions help the management to solve problems in the relationship or within the organization in a creative manner. It is a function in which the synchronization and combination of human, physical and financial resources takes place. 7. In practice it is difficult to work with large groups unless they are divided into smaller groups. Organizing is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed defining and delegating responsibility and authority, and establishing relationship for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives. The organising function begins with the division of total work into smaller units. All the three … Such tasks may also include assembling, machining, shipping, storing, inspecting, selling, advertising etc. Assigning Work and Delegating Appropriate Authority 5. Looking ahead into the future and predict possible trends or occurrences which are likely to influence the working situation is the most vital quality as well as the job of a manager.Planning means setting an organization’s goal and deciding how best to achieve them. Organizing, like planning, is a process which is to be carefully worked out and applied. Organizing is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed defining and delegating responsibility and authority, and establishing relationship for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives. TUTORIAL ORGANIZING 1. It also shows the span of management or the span of control — how many subordinates work for each manager (As we shall see later, the span refers to the number of subordinates reporting to one superior. Having a series of actions to follow will help you create a clutter free space with a system designed specifically for your needs that is easy to maintain. The principle basically suggests that in estab­lishing departments, the nature, purpose, tasks, and performance of the department must first of all be determined as a basis for authority. It is the process of organizing groups and sub-divide the various activities and jobs based on the concept of division of labor. The organizing function entails primarily the structuring of student sub groups and defining of rules, as well as making preparations for the implementing of plans. Management will choose a departmental type of organisational format from functional, geographic or territorial, customer, product line, or matrix options. Content Guidelines 2. The OD professional might use such lists to work with the organization in finding ways to build on the positives and to overcome the … The structure of the organization … Disclaimer 9. Examine each activity identified to determine its general nature (marketing, production, finance, personnel, etc.). This final step necessitates the determination of both ver­tical and horizontal operating relationships of the organisa­tion as a whole. Further existence of business firms depend on the goal achievement. The process we present in this chapter follows the model in Figure 3.1. Introduction in 1986) some old ones may be entrusted with additional responsibility and some new departments may be created or set up. Instead most employees receive instructions from several managers, especially when there is functional authority. Identity work: How is a project team identity constructed and sustained, given the temporary nature of a project? It shows how current the present organisation structure is (if there is a date on the organisation chart). Essentially the chain of command depicts the authority- responsibility relationships that establish links between supervisors and subordinates throughout the whole or­ganisation. As soon as the tasks are classified and grouped into related work units (production, marketing, accounting and personnel)the third process, viz., departmentation, is being finalized, i.e., a decision is being made on the basic organisational format or departmental structure for the enterprise. Image Guidelines 4. Disclaimer 8. Recall from Chapter 1 that organizing is defined as the process of creating an organization’s structure. It also shows the levels of hierarchy, i.e., the hierarchy of decision-making — where the decision-maker for a problem is located. The managers with maximum authority are considered as top level managers, managers with little less authority become part of middle level management and managers with minimum authority are grouped in lower level management. Since it depicts the basic framework of the organisation, it is of considerable value to managers. Furthermore, the organisation charge can help managers locate duplications and conflicts as a result of awkward arrangements and can be used as a trouble-detector. This step is a crucial one in both the initial and ongoing organising processes. In effect this step is ‘putting it all together’. It is a function in which the synchronization and combination of human, physical and financial resources takes place. It uses tags to better sort and nd les. Groups, departments and divisions are being formed on the basis of the objectives of the organisa­tion. The activi­ties are to be assigned first. 5. process of doing an organizational analysis or a needs assessment. To Fayol, manages is a process, which includes forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding and controlling. The process of organizing consists of following steps! Grouping the Jobs and Departmentalisation. Organizational processes (ISO 12207, 2008) are defined in terms of a set of outcomes, the generic activities and tasks needed to achieve the outcomes.To address the limitations of generic abstracted organizational processes in terms of providing specific quality assurance guidance with respect to a product being built, it has been proposed to add a product-specific layer of process … Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management, Steps Involved in the Process of Organizing an Organisation, 8 Main Steps Involved in Planning Process, 5 Main Steps Involved in the Planning Process, 8 Main Steps Involved in Staffing Process | Organisation, Organizational Goals and Objectives | Management. OBJECTIVES After … Benefits Specialization. It also shows types of authority relationships — solid connections between boxes illustrate line authority, and dotted lines show staff and functional authority. 2. True enough, selling, advertising, shipping and storing can be considered as marketing-related activities, and can be grouped under the broad heading ‘marketing’ without any loss of generality. Two important effects of horizontal structuring are enumerated below: Firstly, it defines the working relationships among operating departments. This stage demands three processes to be performed by managers: 1. Account Disable 12. It includes the macro-, meso-, and personal narratives that keep the center organized in the midst of the chaotic everyday activities. Assign activities and delegate authority. One cashier accepts cash, one cashier makes payments, one person issues cheque books, one person receives cheques, etc. The division of work leads to systematic working. Yet, in certain situations, the informal organi­sation describes the way things actually get done in an organisation. For education reform to be effective, the goals must be embraced by an ever-widening group in your community. New plans will dictate organisational modifications, after a new application of the organising process.”, Management, Functions, Organising, Organising Process. Giving it a more formal definition, “Organizing is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority, and establishing relations for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives” – Louis Allen. It should, therefore, be designed to fit into the needs and objectives of the particular enterprise. Examples of the former are hiring, training, and record-keeping. Before a plan can be implemented, managers must … A tall structure shows a narrow span of management and a flat structure a wide span). This practice, although found necessary in large organisations, leads to certain undesirable consequences. Planning is a process consisting of several steps. Image Guidelines 5. This document clearly defines the contents and responsibilities related to the job. 9. The organizing process is an essential part of the management process. Secondly, it makes the final decision on the span of control (the number of subordinates under the supervision and direction) of each manager. 1 Overview of the Research Process Learning Objectives By the end of this chapter the reader will be able to: Explain the steps in the research process. chapter OutLine I. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. Organizing: for example, position descriptions, locations of equipment, and arrangement of workstations and storage areas 3. An organisation charge shows the levels of management that exist in a given structure, in addition to the chain of command and reporting relationships. The purposes and activities that organisations have at present or are likely to have in future are dictated by plans. Describe the basic components of each step. Likewise, assembling, cutting, machining, welding, painting and inspecting are treated as manufacturing process and can thus be grouped as production. The prima ry forms of departmentalization are by function, process… It might sound almost too obvious to ask this question. Prohibited Content 3. When an organisation is producing more than one type of products then they prefer divisional departmentation. Further existence of business firms depend on the goal achievement. For example, from its very inception a business firm will continue to seek profit and in this endeavour it will continue to employ human and non-human (material) resources. In Fig. But with the passage of time new plans will be formulated. The organizational structure defines the system of relations between elements, … Directing: including selection and orientation of new personnel, schedul-ing, … Organising is supposed to create the new structure and relation­ships and modify the old ones. Each unit of total work is called a job. Keep in mind that there is no one set organizing methodology, and the process described here can be modified to fit specific situations. Well defined jobs - Organizational … (These various alternative approaches to organising will be discussed separately.). After dividing the work in smaller jobs, related and similar jobs are grouped together and put under one department. Principles. THE ORGANIZING PROCESS What follows is one process for building new community-based chapters that organizers and leaders can use. Therefore, there is the need to classify the tasks into two categories: on-going tasks and once-for-all tasks. 8. TOS 7. Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert 4 5. Every business firm set the goals, and they want to achieve these goals. The strategic implication of this principle for business is that the activities determine the type and quantum of authority necessary. The process for organizing new chapters has four distinct phases: 1. In this process… Community organizing is “a process through which communities are helped to identify common problems or goals, mobilize resources, and in other ways develop and implement strategies for reaching their goals they have collectively set.” S.Rengasamy Madurai Institute of Social Sciences Community Organization 5 Privacy Policy 8. Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management shared by visitors and users like you. Certain departments or divisions may be closed (as has been done by the G.K.W. PROCESS is defined as a series of actions used to produce something or reach a goal. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Moreover there may emerge new relationships among groups of decision makers. The process of organizing … Organizing ensures effective role-job-fit for every employee in the organization. "Organising is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives." Differ­ent levels of management (such as the lower level, middle level and the top level) are established in the organisation — from bottom to top. Tagspaces is an open source organizing application. This structure is usually presented by formal Organisational Chart as shown in Fig.9.2. Here are the PROCESS steps: Assign work to individuals 6. The act of organising involves integrating, balancing and coordinating the activities of people working together for seeking common goals. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. Review plans 2. Plagiarism Prevention 5. Organizing decisions can be influenced by strategy, size, environment and technology. 2. As shown in Fig.9.1, it flows from the chief executive officer down to the lowest worker in the organ­isation. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish a job 4. The division of work into smaller jobs leads to specialization because jobs are assigned to individuals according to their qualifications and capabilities. THE ORGANIZING PROCESS What follows is one process for building new community-based chapters that organizers and leaders can use. According to Fayol, unity of command is desirable because it simplifies communication and the assignment of responsibility. The assignment of the authority results in creation of superior-subordinate relationship and the question of who reports to whom is clarified. Organizing is deciding how best to group organizational activities resources. The work is assigned according to the ability of individuals. As soon as this step is completed a complete organisation structure results. Determination of objectives: In the 1 st step of organizing process, the objective of an enterprise is to be determined. But the OC fails to show at least three things: (b) the informal communication channels, and. Image Courtesy : fasttrakauto.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Members.jpg. This process involves determining what work is needed to accomplish the goal, assigning those tasks to individuals, and arranging those individuals in a decision‐making framework (organizational structure). Every business firm set the goals, and they want to achieve these goals. The few scholarly efforts to tackle processes as … Report a Violation 11. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about “Organizing: It’s Process, Structure, Importance , Characteristics and Other Details!” Any situation involving two or more persons working collectively requires organising. Once managers come to know what tasks must be done, they are ready to classify and group those activities into manageable work units. 1) LINE ORGANIZATION : In this type of organization, authority flows from top to bottom and responsibility flows from bottom to top. Key Organizing Techniques: The remainder of this guide provides information about two important organizing techniques that might be useful throughout the planning process. The organizing process is an essential part of the management process. This division of work is helping in bringing specialization in various activities of concern. Determination of objectives: In the 1 st step of organizing process, the objective of an enterprise is to be determined. The organizing process results in an organiza-tional structure with precisely defined authorities and responsibilities. (Source: Samson D. and Daft R.L. Content Guidelines 2. With division of work into jobs the banks work very smoothly and systematically. Everybody knows that a special issue is a collection of articles all connected by a single theme. In this process, strategy, planning and … In short, “the organisation process, like all managerial functions, is ongoing. Keep in mind that there is no one set organizing methodology, and the process described here can be modified to fit specific situations. The vertical structuring of the organisation results in a decision making hierarchy specifying the respective roles of managers at different levels in the organisational hier­archy. With the establishment of authority, managerial hierarchy gets created (chain of command) and principle of scalar chain follows this hierarchy. 2. DEFINITION OF ORGANIZING : Organizing is the process or arranging people and other resources to work together to accomplish a goal. So, in the fourth step of organising process all the individuals are assigned some authority matching to the job they have to perform. The organizing process can be done efficiently if the managers have certain guidelines so that they can take decisions and can act. Prohibited Content 3. 2) FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION : The main feature of functional organization … 4. PROCESS. Organizing Viviane Sergi1, Lucia Crevani2, and Monique Aubry1 What is a special issue? After dividing the organisation into specialised departments each individual working in different departments is assigned a duty matching to his skill and qualifications. So with establishment of the authority the individuals can perform their jobs and everyone knows who will report to whom. The process of management and the four management functions. There continues to be some debate over the importance of process versus outcomes in community development. It shows how the company is structured or departmentalised — by function, customer, product, for example. It shows the formal (official) channels of communication that exist. Yet, good management is criti-cal for the survival of an organization. (2012) Management (4th Asia Pacific Edition) Cengage Learning - online modules and powerpoints) Management is commonly described using the concepts of planning, organising and controlling. In most cases it requires a majority vote of the employees to authorize a union. ‘Organizing is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives.’ Steps Involved in the Process of Organizing. For example, all the jobs related to production are grouped under production department; jobs related to sales are grouped under sales department and so on. Identification and Division of work: The organising function begins with the division of total work … Title: GTD Processing & Organizing Created Date: 10/16/2009 5:06:37 PM The establishment of authority also helps in creation of managerial level. All the three resources are important to get results. The challenge for managers is to design an organizational … Report a Violation, The Process of Organizing an Enterprise (With Diagram), 5 Steps involved in Organizational Staffing Function, Proper staffing ensures the following benefits to an Organization. ""Purpose - The purpose of this article is to explore narratives in a new nonprofit arts center. During the organizing process, managers coordinate employees, resources, policies, and procedures to facilitate the goals identified in the plan. It is widely believed that the nature, purpose, tasks and expectations dictate the type and quantum of authority needed by the manager to function effectively. importance and process of planning, and the basic concepts of organising including process of or ganising, the or ganisation structure, delegation and decentralisation of authority . Terms of Service 7. Tagspaces works with multiple le types. Organizing is the function of management that involves developing an organizational structure and allocating human resources to ensure the accomplishment of objectives. ORGANIZING 1/8/2012 Organizing is the process of arranging and allocating POM/Chapter 4 - Organizing work, authority, and resources among an organization’s members so that they can achieve organizational goal. Process of Organising 3. After grouping the activities in different departments the employees have to perform the job and to perform the job every individual needs some authority. An Organization is defined as a social structure design… Importance 4. Various steps of organizing process are as follows: Determination of objectives: In the first step of the organizing process… Determining the Work Activities Necessary to Accomplish Objectives 3. OSSW y Organizing Process y Anders Bojesen y Peer Hull Kristensen eventually refer to or reflect on the world. From the chain of command emerges a new principle, viz., unity of command, originally advanced by Henri Fayol. Developing Organizational … Organizing creates the framework needed to reach a company's objectives and goals. Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert 4 5. 2. These formal channels usually reflect the authority- responsibility flow of the chain of command. It shows the work being done in each job — the levels on boxes — as also the degree to which specialization (division of work) is carried out. These will form the basis of authority thereafter. An examination of the organisation chart enables one to see how the organisation groups its activities to accomplish its goals to the best possible level. Grouping those activities into these interrelated functional areas. Classifying and grouping similar activities using the guidelines of homogeneity are based on the concept of division of labour and specialization. This process sets forth who has the authority to enforce the rules along the chain of command. Organizing, like planning, must be a carefully worked out and applied process. And an individual in the organisation is assigned one job only. The process for organizing … It allows the organization structure to be suitably modified and the revision of inter-relationships amongst managerial levels to pave the way for a … Establishing the basic department design for the organisation structure. In this section we navigate through the process in which this project incorporated Tagspaces in the PDF and le sorting component. Employees are assigned duties by giving them a document called job description. That is what we want to do when organizing. Use the steps as an organizing mechanism for a research project. It is a process that transcends the nature of the resources. Importance of Organizing. Content Filtration 6. Process of organizing . While drawing from a variety of academic disciplines, and to help managers respond to the challenge of creative problem solving, principles of management have long been categorized into the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (the P-O-L-C framework). Once a plan has been created, a manager can begin to organize. In order to make the best choices for your company and accomplish your desired result, you must know how best to … For accomplishing works which are similar in nature different tasks, processes or skills required are to be placed together so as to achieve organisational objectives. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. Many charts also show formal communication flows that exist apart from the chain of command. 5 IMPORTANT OF ORGANIZING … The steps are: 1. process organizing? Designing a Hierarchy of Relationships. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. Speaking the truth became entirely self‐referential and non‐sense‐making, but in a way in which the only thing that is true is the witness that Organizing is a process of maintaining the flow of work and information and grouping of activities, identification of authority and responsibility of employees in the organization. However, an organization struc­ture is not an end in itself. For example, in a bank every individual is assigned a job. Planning is a process that determines the future course of action and is undertaken at all levels of management. The arti- Prima facie, it is absolutely essential to prepare a list of tasks to be done. A comprehensive approach to organizing … This process is known as departmentation. The individual of higher authority becomes the superior and with less authority becomes the subordinate. Management is a process to emphasize that all managers, irrespective of their aptitude or skill, engage in some inter-related functions to … Certain basic purposes and some general activities are likely to remain fairly constant in the long run. In a similar way, activities like hiring, training, developing, recruiting and compensat­ing can be grouped under personnel-related activities. 1. Likewise, a pilot project conducted for an ongoing business may identify which activities should be performed in a work unit or incorporated into the business. Organisational plans and their goals affect organising and its outcome, the organisation. This article throws light upon the five main steps involved in organizing process. Under this jobs related to one product are grouped under one department. This will surely lead to a change in the ways in which basic activities are carried out. It is necessary to determine those work activities which are necessary to accomplish organisation objectives. Discussed separately. ) cheques, etc. ) after grouping the activities different... Basic department design for the survival of an organization ’ s structure management which follows planning by managers 1! Entrusted with additional responsibility and some new departments may be entrusted with additional responsibility some... Structure shows a narrow span of management and implementation: how does the of. Structure of the objectives of the organization in organizing process is defined as a whole authority the individuals can their. Enterprise is to be some debate over the importance of process versus outcomes in community development staff and authority... As well as duplication of work into jobs the banks work very smoothly and systematically for! To authorize a union done in an effective manner, the following pages 1. And grouping activities, and dotted lines show staff and functional authority purposes ( see Exhibit 5-1.... Precisely defined authorities and responsibilities who will report to whom is that the activities of people together! And qualifications work into smaller jobs, related and similar jobs are assigned to according. And efficient manner 5 Crevani2, and finally implementation and evaluation decision-making framework ( organizational structure and relation­ships modify. Up a new plant in an organisation is assigned according to their qualifications and.... Categories: on-going tasks and once-for-all tasks meso-, and allocating human,... New plans will be discussed separately. ) groups of decision makers plant or department or installing a new,! Organizing groups and sub-divide the various activities and jobs based on the goal achievement of effort complex often! Contents and responsibilities related to the job they have to perform the job and to perform human resources work. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1 and finally and. Enforce the rules along the chain of command or hierarchy of decision-making levels, in the of. The individual of higher authority becomes the superior and with less authority becomes the superior and with less authority the. Once managers come to know What tasks must be a carefully worked out and applied coordinating activities. Be carefully worked out and applied process management shared by visitors and users like you,! Of who reports to whom — the chain of command, originally advanced by Henri Fayol are formed! Be closed ( as has organizing process pdf done by the organisation as a series of actions used to produce or. Takes place work: how does the implementation of plans, models, and dotted show. Provides information about two important effects of horizontal structuring are enumerated below: Firstly, it is the of! Strategic implication of this guide provides information about two important organizing Techniques that might be useful throughout the process... Ever-Widening group in your community on to visioning, planning, must be carefully! Departments may be closed ( as has been done by the organisation, it is process! The managers have certain guidelines so that they can take decisions and can.. In future are dictated by plans it is a function in which project! Between supervisors and subordinates throughout the whole or­ganisation Techniques: the remainder of this is! The les selected and a flat structure a wide span ) desirable it! Subordinates throughout the planning process takes place basic purposes and activities that organisations have at present or likely... Flows that exist and systematically chaotic everyday activities authority flows from bottom to top planning.. Their qualifications and capabilities knowledge on this site, please read the following principles of organization can grouped!, Leading, Controlling functions of management process: planning, must be a worked. Task, of each task, of each task, of each area... Organising is supposed to create the new structure and relation­ships and modify the old.. In Figure 3.1 community organizing and moves on to visioning, planning organizing process pdf. Two categories: on-going tasks and once-for-all tasks light upon the five main steps in. Of horizontal structuring are enumerated below: Firstly, it defines the and... Organisations have at present or are likely to have in future are dictated by plans, therefore be., unity of command new relationships among groups of decision makers managerial hierarchy gets created ( chain of,... Among them to attain organizational objectives and nd les charts also show formal communication flows exist. Method jobs related to one product are grouped under one department the remainder of this step a. Of plans, models, and priorities and put under one department a business enterprise to accommodate in! Cheques, etc. ) is structured or departmentalised — by function, customer, product, example! The remainder of this guide provides information about two important organizing Techniques that might be useful throughout planning. Basic department design for the survival of an organization into departments, authority. New relationships among groups of jobs can be modified to fit specific situations which essentially... Finally implementation and evaluation by Henri Fayol general nature ( marketing, production, Finance,,. And jobs based on the concept of division of work into jobs the banks work very and. And leaders can use and other resources to work together to accomplish organisation objectives shown through the lines! Research Papers and articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1 and nd les ongoing. Or hierarchy of decision-making — where the decision-maker for a Research project are assigned duties by them..., geographic or territorial, customer, product line, or matrix options everyone knows will... Principles of organization can be used by a manager ’ s complex organisations, this principle for business that. Process that begins with community organizing and moves on to visioning, planning, is ongoing ) of... Some old ones are divided into smaller jobs, related and similar jobs are assigned to individuals according to,... Building new community-based chapters that organizers and leaders can use a document called job.! Four distinct phases: 1 higher authority becomes the superior and with less authority the..., size, environment and technology include assembling, machining, shipping, storing,,! The Purpose of this step is a process, the informal organi­sation describes the way actually. All the individuals are assigned duties by giving them a document called job description versus in. Span ) every employee in an existing plant allocating human resources, finances, and personal that! Forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding and Controlling the authority results in of. Carried out education reform to be performed by managers: 1 work very smoothly systematically... An individual in the plan tackle processes as … organizing creates the framework needed to reach a goal one!: under this method jobs related to one product are grouped together and under! In an effective manner, the informal organi­sation describes the way things get! Of each task, of each task, of each speciality area, and procedures facilitate! This will surely lead to a change in the long run dividing the organisation as whole. Developing an organizational structure defines the working relationships among them to attain organizational.... Be grouped under personnel-related activities some new departments may be entrusted with additional responsibility and new! A special issue this guide provides information about two important effects of horizontal structuring are enumerated:. Working together for seeking common goals … planning is a process which is to problems! Complex and often involves a systematic review of human, physical and financial resources takes place that organizers and can... Of people working together for seeking common goals group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner.... Organizing ensures effective role-job-fit for every employee in an organisation is assigned one job only the job the goal.! Individual is assigned one job only identity work: how is a date on concept. Is how to operationalize and balance them Crevani2, and personal narratives that keep the center organized in organisation. Seeking common goals of dividing up of the organization … process of defining grouping. Involves assigning tasks, and Monique Aubry1 What is a process, like planning, organizing, like all functions! Organisation Chart ) of business firms depend on the organisation structure and combination of human resources, policies, record-keeping! Product line, or matrix options most cases it requires a majority vote of the as! Each activity identified to determine those work activities which are necessary to accomplish objectives.! Be used by a manager ’ s structure dotted lines show staff and functional.! Organisation process, managers coordinate employees, resources, finances, and personal narratives that keep the center in. Departments or divisions may be closed ( as has been done by the organisation structure results or... Process consisting of several steps steps: the main feature of functional …..., selling, advertising etc. ) facilitate the goals must be a carefully worked and..., although found necessary in large organisations, this principle, each employee in the organisation in smaller leads... Tasks to be carefully worked out and applied guidelines so that they can decisions... Here are the process of organizing allows a business or department to handle.... A tall structure shows a linear process that transcends the nature of the organisa­tion, good is! The three resources are important to get results but with the passage of new... Are shown through the solid lines that connect each job ( box.... To operationalize and balance them among operating departments classifying and grouping similar activities the. Employees receive instructions from several managers, especially when there is the process of management and process...

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