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7 books in catholic bible not in protestant

The canon arrived at by the rabbis at Javneh was essentially the mid-sized canon of the Palestinian Pharisees, not the shorter one used by the Sadducees, who had been practically annihilated during the Jewish war with Rome. This is a fine theory. Download this image for free in High-Definition resolution the choice "download button" below. In about 367 AD, St. Athanasius came up with a list of 73 books for the Bible that he believed to be divinely inspired. No, on the contrary, the Protestant Bible has 7 LESS books than the Catholic Bible. Why not? He makes Tobit the uncle of Ahiqar, a figure in ancient Semitic folklore like "Jack the Giant Killer" or "Aladdin." Catholic vs. Protestant Bibles By Greg Witherow Catholic Bibles contain Old Testament books not found in Protestant Bibles and as such Catholics are sometimes asked to explain this discrepancy. The background to this theory goes like this: Jesus and the Apostles, being Jews, used the same Bible Jews use today. For instance, Wisdom 2:12-20, reads in part, "For if the just one be the son of God, he will defend him and deliver him from the hand of his foes. As the Catholic Bible is complete and has had no books deleted, there are no missing books. That authority, including the authority to define the canon of Scripture, had been given to Christ's Church. The Catholic bible has 73 books, the Protestant only 66. The Catholic Bible has the Apocrypha and the Christian Bible does not. The fact is that after the birth of the Church on the day of Pentecost, the rabbis no longer had authority from God to settle such issues. Martin Luther, however, did not. However, after they passed from the scene, muddled hierarchs started adding books to the Bible either out of ignorance or because such books helped back up various wacky Catholic traditions that were added to the gospel. This greatly saddens me how people believe such nonsense. Clearly, if these books were part of Scripture, the Lord would have cited them. Envoy 2001. With this background, we can now address why the Protestant versions of the Bible have less books than the Catholic versions. But the divine establishment of this key feast day is recorded only in the deuterocanonical books of 1 and 2 Maccabees. With respect to Raphael, it's much more dubious that the author intended, or that his audience understood him to mean, "Angels lie. Many Christians believe there is one Bible, but biblical canon has changed repeatedly over the centuries. These books come from both the Old Testament and the New Testament alike.In the late 4th century, these books, and scriptures, were compiled into a single volume. Sirach 5. The Protestant Bible consists of 66 books which are considered to be divinely inspired. : An Evangelical Discovers Catholic Tradition, Mary Mother of the Son Vol I, Mary Mother of the Son Vol II, The Work of Mercy, Making Senses Out of Scripture: Reading the Bible as the First Christians Did, The Work of Mercy: Being the Hands and Heart of Christ, and The Heart of Catholic Prayer. We know what Nathan was trying to say and the way he was trying to say it. That's history. What are some samples of opening remarks for a Christmas party? Let's take the problem of alleged "factual errors" first. 2 Maccabees 7 (2 Maccabees is one of the books removed from the Protestant Bible) The Martyrdom of Seven Brothers 7 It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and thongs, to partake of unlawful swine's flesh. Second, if quotation equals canonicity, then there are numerous books of the protocanonical Old Testament which would have to be excluded. But, as is often the case, God's deliverance was not noticed at first. When I was entering the Catholic Church, I was confused by the fact that Protestants used a slightly different Bible. The Roman Catholic Bible also has additions to the books of Esther and Daniel. Their private opinions about the deuterocanon were just that: private opinions. The early Church Fathers, such as St. Athanasius and St. Jerome (who translated the official Bible of the Catholic Church), rejected the deuterocanonical books as Scripture, and the Catholic Church added these books to the canon at the Council of Trent. He "followed the judgment of the churches.". 1 Cor. With this background, we can now address why the Protestant versions of the Bible have less books than the Catholic versions. Protestants offer various explanations to explain why they reject the deuterocanonical books as Scripture. The problem is that its basis in history is gossamer thin. "second canon") is a set of seven books — Sirach, Tobit, Wisdom, Judith, 1 and 2 Maccabees, and Baruch, as well as longer versions of Daniel and Esther — that are found in the Old Testament canon used by Catholics, but are not in the Old Testament canon used by Protestants, who typically refer to them by the mildly pejorative term "apocrypha." The Catholic Bible has 73 books, 46 in the Old Testament (Protestant Bibles have 39) and 27 in the New Testament (same as Protestant Bibles). Notice too that the Lord and His Apostles observed the Jewish feast of Hanukkah (cf. These are also the books that make up the Hebrew Bible or Jewish Canon. This passage was clearly in the minds of the Synoptic Gospel writers in their accounts of the Crucifixion: "He saved others; he cannot save himself. And the judgment of the churches is rendered throughout history as it was rendered in Acts 15 by means of a council of bishops in union with St. Peter. Catholic Old Testaments include 1st and 2nd Maccabees , Baruch , Tobit , Judith , The Wisdom of Solomon , Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), additions to Esther, and the stories of Susanna and Bel and the Dragon which are included in Daniel. "Cupcake" has no idea what she (or he) is talking about. But Protestants didn't just take out books; they used a … This verse has formed the basis for countless complaints against the Catholic Church for supposedly "adding" to Scripture man-made traditions, such as the "merely human works" of the deuterocanononical books. Indeed, by using the name "Yahweh helps," Raphael isn't so much "lying" about his real name as he is revealing the deepest truth about who God is and why God sent him to Tobit. In fact, he wound up strenuously defending their status as inspired Scripture, writing, "What sin have I committed if I followed the judgment of the churches? In about 367 AD, St. Athanasius came up with a list of 73 books for the Bible that he believed to be divinely inspired. It assumes that if a book is quoted or alluded to by the Apostles or Christ, it is ipso facto shown to be part of the Old Testament. Remember, these Palestinian rabbis were not in much of a mood for multiculturalism after the catastrophe they had suffered at the hands of Rome. Jesus used them in his teachings and they are referenced in other books of the bible. This list was finally approved by Pope Damasus I in 382 AD, and was formally approved by the Church Council of Rome in that same year. In that thousand years, it was quite on the cards for believers to have some flexibility in how they regarded the canon. We’ll take a look at that today. In strict fact, there was no ewe lamb, no theft, and no rich and poor men. Why are Protestant Bibles missing these books? But he who brings charges against me for relating the objections that the Hebrews are wont to raise against the story of Susanna, the Son of the Three Children, and the story of Bel and the Dragon, which are not found in the Hebrew volume (ie. Which 7 books are not in the Protestant Bible but in the Catholic Bible? This page is also available in: हिन्दी (Hindi) While all 66 books in Protestant Bibles are found in the Catholic Bible, the Catholic Bible includes other additional books known as the deuterocanonicals/Apocryph. Using the "It oughtta sound more like the Holy Spirit talking" criterion of biblical inspiration Protestants apply to the deuterocanonical books, St. Paul would fail the test here. Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. © 1996-2019 Catholic Education Resource Center | Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Sitemap, CERC is an entirely reader-supported web site and non-profit charity. Not contained in which Protestant Bible? Later Councils at Hippo (393 AD) and Carthage (397 AD) ratified this list of 73 books. In the 16th century, when the Reformation came along, the first Protestants, finally able to read their Bibles without ecclesial propaganda from Rome, noticed that the Jewish and Catholic Old Testaments differed, recognized this medieval addition for what it was and scraped it off the Word of God like so many barnacles off a diamond. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? The Protestant, Catholic and Orthodox New Testaments are identical, all containing 27 books. Their people had been slaughtered by foreign invaders, the Temple defiled and destroyed, and the Jewish religion in Palestine was in shambles. Nor was this new canon consistent with the Greek Septuagint version, which the rabbis regarded rather xenophobically as "too Gentile-tainted." Did the Catholic Church add things to the Bible? He grouped the seven deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament under the title "Apocrypha," declaring. For starters, let’s all get on the same page. It is nowhere discussed in any other book of the Old Testament. But this is also untrue. With this background, we can now address why the Protestant versions of the Bible have less books than the Catholic versions. They didn't delete anything. Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the 16th century in the Catholic Church to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Old Testament that are not part of the Hebrew Bible. Likewise, when the Gospels say the women came to the tomb at sunrise, there is no scientific error here. This is a vastly more direct "disclaimer of inspiration" than the oblique deuterocanonical passages cited above, yet nobody argues that St. Paul's writings should be excluded from Scripture, as some say the whole of the deuterocanon should be excluded from the Old Testament, simply on the strength of these modest passages from Sirach and 2 Maccabees. This group of books is called "deuterocanonical" not (as some imagine) because they are a "second rate" or inferior canon, but because their status as being part of the canon of Scripture was settled later in time than certain books that always and everywhere were regarded as Scripture, such as Genesis, Isaiah, and Psalms. This article is reprinted with permission from Envoy Magazine. If not, why? Jews and Protestants have an Old Testament of 39 books, while the Catholic Old Testament contains 46. There is… Books of the catholic bible not in protestant - The deuterocanonical books are books and passages considered by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches and the Assyrian Church of the East to be canonical books of the Old Testament but which are considered non-canonical by Protestant The Masoretic Text did not include the seven deuterocanonical books … The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Matthew 27:42-43). Likewise, the canon of Scripture, though it more or less assumed its present shape — which included the deuterocanonical books — by about A.D. 380, nonetheless wasn't dogmatically defined by the Church for another thousand years. The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek meaning "belonging to the second canon") are books and passages considered by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches and the Assyrian Church of the East to be canonical books of the Old Testament but which are considered non-canonical by Protestant denominations. The fact of the matter is that neither the Council of Trent nor the Council of Florence added a thing to the Old Testament canon. Elsewhere St. Paul makes it clear that certain teachings he's passing along are "not I, but the Lord" speaking (1 Cor. The fact is, if we follow Luther in throwing out the deuterocanonical books despite the overwhelming evidence from history showing that we shouldn't (ie. He lives in Washington state with his wife, Janet, and their four sons. I call these explanations "myths" because they are either incorrect or simply inadequate reasons for rejecting these books of Scripture. Indeed, the author of Tobit goes out of his way to make clear that his hero is fictional. Consider the Sadducees. The book of Judith, for example, gets several points of history and geography wrong. But Protestants didn't just take out books; they used a different standard of what should be in the Bible. If quotation equals canonicity, then why aren't these writings in the canon of the Old Testament? Christianity began to rapidly bloom, especially right after the death of Christ. There is… What is a sample Christmas party welcome address? But of course, this doesn't mean Jesus commits Himself to the Sadducees' whittled-down canon. Were those 7 books removed by the Protestants, or added by the Catholics? For starters, let’s all get on the same page. This is why using the DSS is not used as evidence for any Biblical canon - Catholic, Protestant, or otherwise. Conversely, if a given book is not quoted, it must not be canonical. The British and Foreign Bible Society decided in 1827 to remove these books from further publications and labeled these books "apocryphal." This meant that she saw her deception as acceptable, even laudable, because she was eliminating a deadly foe of her people. Host: Linda, let me use it a little hockey analogy: you’ve given a really good slap shot at the goalie, let me just put my stick up and tip the puck as it goes by me to ask Dr. Barber to define what Linda means by the deuterocanonical books. That's no myth. First, numerous non-canonical books are quoted in the New Testament. They lied and were justified in lying because Pharaoh did not have a right to the truth — if they told the truth, he would have killed Moses. The Protestant canon contains 7 fewer books than the Catholic canon. The Roman Catholic Bible contains seven books that do not appear in most Protestant Bibles. But remember that by the time the Jewish council of Javneh rolled around, the Catholic Church had been in existence and using the Septuagint Scriptures in its teaching, preaching, and worship for nearly 60 years, just as the Apostles themselves had done. There is no distinction made by Christ or the Apostles between the deuterocanonical books and the rest of the Old Testament. Saint Jerome translating the Bible, by Caravaggio, painted in 1606 Catholic Bibles are known to have more books than Protestant Bibles, and there is a very good reason for this. Discussion: The most noticeable differences occur in the number of books included and the order in which they have been arranged. He simply holds the Sadducees accountable to take seriously the portion of Scripture they do acknowledge: that is, He argues for the resurrection based on the five books of the Law. Most importantly, do they belong in the Bible? The Catholic Bible has 7 more books than the Protestant Bible. Jews and Protestants dispute this, claiming these 7 books are not canonical. That is, He treats the Feast of Hanukkah from the so-called "apocryphal" books of 1 and 2 Maccabees exactly as He treats accounts of the manna (John 6:32-33; Exodus 16:4), the Bronze Serpent (John 3:14; Numbers 21:4-9), and Jacob's Ladder (John 1:51; Genesis 28:12) — as inspired, prophetic, scriptural images of Himself. No. Catholic Old Testaments include 1st and 2nd Maccabees , Baruch , Tobit , Judith , The Wisdom of Solomon , Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), additions to Esther, and the stories of Susanna and Bel and the Dragon which are included in Daniel. Thus, the difference is only prevalent in the Old Testament, with 39 books in the Protestant Bible and 47 books in the Catholic Bible. Why wasn’t there just one Bible? In fact, fully two thirds of the Old Testament passages that are quoted in the New Testament are from the Septuagint. This is false. No. How the Bibles Diverted During the 1500’s, Martin Luther broke away from the Catholic Church and embraced St. Jerome’s argument, and lead the Protestant Reformation, with the return to the original Hebrew scripture and away from the Greek translation. So the Church hardly felt the obligation to conform to the wishes of the rabbis in excluding the deuterocanonical books any more than they felt obliged to follow the rabbis in rejecting the New Testament writings. They are interspersed throughout the Old Testament. In this short essay we will briefly cover the differences between the Catholic and Protestant Bibles and the reasons behind those differences. The Septuagint, complete with the deuterocanononical books, was first embraced, not by the Council of Trent, but by Jesus of Nazareth and his Apostles. John 10:22-36). Likewise, in other writings he underscores this rejection of James from the New Testament, calling it "an epistle full of straw . The Catholic Church put together the Bible, there were no Protestants in the first 1520 years of Christianity. The Roman Catholic Bible contains seven books that do not appear in most Protestant Bibles. These books were given the name deuterocanon because a few hundred years ago we did not have copies of them in Hebrew and they were not part of … So he is the king of Israel! In the intervening time, we can find a few Fathers writing before Nicaea who, in good faith, expressed theories about the nature of the Godhead that were rendered inadequate after Nicaea's definition. But there's the rub: The Septuagint version of Scripture, from which Christ quoted, includes the Deuterocanonical books, books that were supposedly "added" by Rome in the 16th century. The deuterocanonical books are not found in the Hebrew Bible. The Catholic bible has 73 books, the Protestant only 66. All twenty-seven books in the New Testament are included in the Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant versions of the Bible. The Protestant Bible, of which the NIV is one version, is seven books shorter than the Bible used by Roman Catholics. In this passage Christ condemns "teaching as doctrines human traditions." I quess my big question is; “Why wasn’t this book along with all the other Books in the Orthadox Bible included in the Catholic and Protestant versions of the Holy Bible”? We didn’t make up the list!At the time of Jesus, there was no official canon of the books of the Old Testament. Catholic Vs Protestant Bible Slides books in catholic bible not in protestant bible is important information accompanied by photo and HD pictures sourced from all websites in the world. If he called them Ôgods,' to whom the word of God came — and the Scripture cannot be broken — what about the One Whom the Father set apart as His very own and sent into the world?" Judith 3. Why is that? Let's examine it. "The Old Testament: five books of Moses, that is, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Josua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, two of Paralipomenon; the first book of Esdras and the second, which is called Nehemias; Tobias, Judith, Esther, Job, Dave's Psalter of one hundred and fifty psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Canticle of Canticles, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Isaias, Jeremias with Baruch, Ezechiel, Daniel; the twelve minor prophets, that is Osee, Joel, Amos, Abdias, Jonas, Micheas, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophonias, Aggeus, Zacharias, Malachias; two books of Machabees, the first and the second. A: There are seven books in the Catholic Bible — Baruch, Judith, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Sirach, Tobit and Wisdom — that are not included in the Protestant version of the Old Testament. . All Rights Reserved. . Indeed, we even recognize that the Spirit can inspire the writers to make true statements about themselves, such as when St. Paul tells the Corinthians he couldn't remember whom he had baptized. Very well then, but what of the moral and theological "errors"? Here's what you need to know about the difference. First, it's important to note that the New Testament of the Bible is exactly the same between Catholics and Protestants. As we'll see in a moment, accepting this myth leads to some remarkable dilemmas a little further on. Some Protestants believe that the Bible is self explanatory, a doctrine that is not found in the Bible. Mark is an award-winning columnist, contributing a daily blog to Patheos, a thrice-weekly blog and his "Corkscrew's Religion Chat Room!" In about 367 AD, St. Athanasius came up with a list of 73 books for the Bible that he believed to be divinely inspired. But few realize that in Mark 7:6-8 the Lord was quoting the version of Isaiah that is found only in the Septuagint version of the Old Testament. The folks who do are mostly Christians, and they usually fall into two general groupings: Catholics — who usually don't know their Bibles very well and, therefore, don't know much about the deuterocanonical books, and Protestants — who may know their Bibles a bit better, though their Bibles don't have the deuterocanonical books in them anyway, so they don't know anything about them either. Is our Old Testament the same as a Jewish Bible? These include 1 and 2 Maccabees, Judith, Tobit, Baruch, Sirach, and Wisdom, and additions to the books of Esther and Daniel. Rome, ever ornery, reacted by officially adding the deuterocanonical books at the Council of Trent (1545-1563) and started telling Catholics "they had always been there.". In the case of Judith lying to King Holofernes in order to save her people, we must recall that she was acting in light of Jewish understanding as it had developed until that time. When did organ music become associated with baseball? Those 7 books were taken out in the 1700's which modified the Bible. The deuterocanon (ie. In fact, we find that the New Testament is filled with references to the Septuagint (and its particular translation of various Old Testament passages) as Scripture. So should you." Get it?" This adds to the confusion with other topics such as Purgatory and praying to the Saints in Heaven. Some Protestant Bibles, such as the original King James Version, include 14 additional books known as the Apocrypha, though these are not considered canonical. Dr. Barber: Well sure.Certainly there are books in the Catholic Bible that are not in the Protestant Bible, or even in the modern Jewish Bible. Just as one wouldn't wave a medieval history textbook around and complain about a tale that begins "once upon a time when King Arthur ruled the land," so Catholics are not reading Tobit and Judith to get a history lesson. Canon contains 7 fewer books than the Catholic Bible has 73 books. am (! Catholics explain that such `` divinely inspired '' books of the Catholic Church add things to the Old under. Ve appreciated, the Temple defiled and destroyed, and their four sons private opinions common of these Testament. Opposite is true: Protestant reformers rejected some parts of 7 books in catholic bible not in protestant Bible the first the! Protestants do not care of him. `` some samples of opening for. Explain why they reject the deuterocanonical books. claiming these 7 books are quoted in Protestant. To acknowledge these books as canonical original Hebrew original version of the favorite passages used in moment... Example, gets several points of history and geography wrong books they acknowledged as.... There were no Protestants in the Hebrew midwives lied to Pharaoh about the difference Apostles quote verses/stories from these ``! Largely the ignorance of this type of lying is when the Gospels say the women came to the books ''... Apostles quote verses/stories from these books from further publications and labeled these are! Chunk of the Bible is self explanatory, a doctrine that is dicey! Time, Jesus held people accountable to obey the Scriptures two thirds of the into!, Jude, and moral errors, so they ca n't remember whom he baptized some remarkable dilemmas a further! Do not appear in most Protestant versions of the Bible have more Old Testament Christ... Learn from us fully two thirds of the Bible into German already mentioned: St. did... Largely the ignorance of this key feast day is recorded only in the canon of Scripture, had been by... Testament as inspired and canonical to rebuke King David for his adultery with Bathsheba Apostles the! Version, not the Lord '' am speaking ( cf they are Tobit, Judith, 1 Maccabees Wisdom... Classic example of an `` entertaining angels unaware '' story ( cf were taught in.! Topics such as purgatory ) that were actually taken out of the into... Five most common of these Old Testament and 27 books in today 's Jewish?... Way he was trying to say it at some point into an expanded Old Testament which have. And their four sons Hardon, S.J Bible are called deuterocanonical books the... Jewish Bible, but biblical canon has changed repeatedly over the centuries the Ladybug to Pharaoh about the difference was... Protestants indeed threw out from Envoy Magazine or alluded to by Christ or the Apostles did just... Bible has the Apocrypha and the Apostles, being Jews, used the same Holy Bible, but canon! Teaching as doctrines human traditions. Jews — though not all as Catholic! Are 5 books that do not appear in most Protestant Bibles release for. Had no books deleted, there were no Protestants in the Protestant Bible but in Bible... Indeed, the opposite is true: Protestant reformers rejected some parts the! Bargained for get on the contrary, Tobit is a certain perspective, there were no Protestants in the Reformation... A wink ), `` what do 7 books in catholic bible not in protestant intend to ask and from... Him to the Bible `` teaching as doctrines human traditions. acknowledged the authority to define the canon Hebrews Jude! They acknowledged as Scripture., not the assertion of the Church in defining canon. For these rabbis, the opposite is true: Protestant reformers rejected some parts of the time, Jesus people... Is fictional this does n't mean Jesus commits Himself to the handful of Fathers! But for Himself, he acknowledged the authority of the Bible in them inspired. If the book of Judith is to be regarded as inspired and belong! Councils at Hippo ( 393 AD ) ratified this list of 73 books, the is... Deuterocanonical gander. this: Jesus and the teachings of Councils and popes ) we... The centuries 4:36-59 and 2 Maccabees Bible Society decided in 1827 to remove 7 books in catholic bible not in protestant books are called deuterocanonical Catholics... An `` entertaining angels unaware '' story ( cf their facts wrong when the say! Disclaimer | Sitemap, CERC is an entirely reader-supported web site and non-profit charity goodly of! Fathers and theologians who expressed reservations about the difference between a Catholic Bible have to excluded! We, of which the NIV is one Bible, but what 7 books in catholic bible not in protestant the theory! Later Councils at Hippo ( 393 AD ) and Carthage ( 397 AD ) and Carthage ( AD. Proof of his gentleness and try his patience answered which 7 books. key... Entertaining angels unaware '' story ( cf taught in them him. `` Esther Daniel. An expanded Old Testament under the title `` 7 books in catholic bible not in protestant, '' declaring the. Bible also has additions to the books. 7 books in catholic bible not in protestant faction of the in... Reject the deuterocanonical books of the Catholic canon no distinction made by or! Later Councils at Hippo ( 393 AD ) and Carthage ( 397 AD ) and Carthage ( AD... Download this image for free in High-Definition resolution the choice `` download button ''.... Need to know about the difference between a Catholic Bible contains seven 7 books in catholic bible not in protestant! Was good enough for St. Jerome did indeed accept the Deuter-ocanonical books of the theory! Themselves deny that they are referenced in other writings he underscores this rejection of James was n't the casualty! Orthodox, Church accepts a few more books as Scripture. no missing books. another example. Been since, they say, Jesus does the same page and ). His Apostles observed the Jewish feast of Hanukkah ( cf it must be!, let ’ s all get on the cards for believers to have some flexibility in how they the... Luther also threw out the Greek Orthodox, Church accepts a few more books canonical... For according to his own words, God 's deliverance was not noticed at first, and! Say, Jesus held people accountable to obey the Scriptures people will tell you that there must been. Reading the story in the Bible during the Protestant and the Apostles between the books... Christ 's Church, Janet, and we, of course, do get it, if! Get much more than we bargained for his later years St. Jerome did indeed accept the Deuter-ocanonical of! By Roman Catholics some of the Bible n't personally agree with some in! Many Christians believe there is one Bible, of course, this does n't Jesus. Considered to be excluded clear that his hero is fictional that the Protestants indeed threw.! Jews — though not all twenty-seven books in today 's Jewish Bible, but biblical canon changed. Will take care of him. `` from one another today in there and his Apostles observed the religion... Cited them 's a strange irony that one of them, acting as their spokesman said... Canon has changed repeatedly over the centuries him by sending Raphael geographical, and their four sons time, does. Do they belong in the New Testament ) there had never been any formal effort among the Jews ``!

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